fighting for their cause heaped blame on the others' heads,, in an endeavour
to induce their citizens and soldiers to follow their lead.
Poland alone stood as a solid block undivided. The Germans had
tried to split the country for four years, but no Pole had spoken over a
German-controlled radio, linking that country's cause with his. The
German radio expressed only one sentiment in relation to Poland—hatred.
Had Poland lain to the west of Europe under the shadow of Britain,
her triumph would have already been secured, for Germany was reeling
under the blows of war. But Poland was in the path of another imperia-
list Power, and the expected triumph over Germany was not to mean a
final triumph for her as well. While still under the heel of one con-
queror, she found she would have to defend herself against yet another.
The impartial observer was obliged to admit one fact, at least, that the
Polish people in the face of total war were first and foremost an example
of total unity. Every effort the Soviets made in Poland in their search for
agents was frustrated. The Polish Underground, with its representative
Government in London, ruled over Poland.
The Soviets were unable, either to over-run this Underground State,
or disable its Government. Moscow had finally to confess that she was
still far from her desired goal. Under such circumstances, the Kremlin,
accustomed to conducting its campaigns according to well-known Com-
munist methods, had to alter its tactics in this Polish case. It reached
the conclusion that the creation of a competitive government for Poland,
based on the e Union of Polish Patriots ' with its headquarters in Moscow,
would not be easily digested by America and Britain, particularly as 0 this
e Union * did not possess even one well-known personality within its
ranks. Therefore Moscow took care to limit the role of this c Union'
in its propaganda, merely asking on its behalf for a share in the Polish
Government and the right of co-representation, as if this c shy body'
did, in truth^ represent some section of the Polish people.*
Although publicly abandoning the idea of using the * Patriots * as the
basis for a rival Government, Moscow, in fact, decided to go farther and
* The Times" Moscow's correspondent, repeating the Soviet's views, wrote on
April 16th, 1944 :
cc The Union of Polish Patriots has no aspirations towards becoming the Govern-
ment of Poland, but will stand firm to the principle that the people of liberated
Poland must choose a Government in free elections."
This statement, " stand firm to the principle ... of free elections " which the
* Union' made, appeared open to query for as already stated, this term * free
election ' was interpreted differently by the Russians.
The Polish Government had already announced that the normal elections would
be undertaken immediately after the liberation of their country. There was more
than one governmental declaration on this point; as, for instance, the declaration of
February 24th, 1942, and the statement made by the Prime Minister on July 27th,
1943; the Declarations of the four main parties combined in the Home Political
Representation of August 30th, 1943, and the speech of the President of die Polish
Republic of November 11th, 1943. It is also worth recalling that within two
montiis of the liberation of Poland in 1918, elections were held and a parliament